It is known as waterlogging the act and the result of waterlogging. This verb, on the other hand, refers to filling, covering or filling with water. A flood, therefore, is a flood.
According to DigoPaul, the concept of waterlogging is usually used with reference to what happens when a body of water floods a place and prevents or makes it difficult to access it. Let us suppose that in a town it rains intensely for three consecutive days. These precipitations cause a river that runs through the town to overflow, generating flooding. The situation leads people to temporarily abandon their homes because water covers the streets and enters houses, putting all the inhabitants of the town at risk.
Flooding can also affect a road: a street, an avenue, a road or route, etc. A dirt road, in the framework of a storm, can be flooded and prevent the movement of vehicles.
Not all cities are prepared to face such a phenomenon, either due to the lack of responsibility on the part of local governments or due to changes in the climate over the decades. Flooding and flooding in urban areas can cause large losses of money, as well as in the countryside, and for this reason it is important to have drainage systems capable of clearing roads in the most efficient way possible.
Although in colloquial language the notions of waterlogging and flooding are used synonymously, geology distinguishes between the two ideas. Waterlogging occurs when a land fails to drain water and retains it. A flood, on the other hand, is due to an existing watercourse that overflows. Waterlogging, on the other hand, can also be caused by a rise in groundwater (that is, by an increase in the water table).
The top of an aquifer, that is to say, of a conduit or a layer in which a body of groundwater is housed, is always known under the name of groundwater level, always below the earth’s surface. A precise example is the water table, a shallow accumulation (other aquifers can be found much further from ground level).
In a field, waterlogging causes different damage to the soil. Among the most common consequences is the development of salinization and the lack of oxygen for plant roots.
Salinization, on the other hand, is a process that can also take place as a consequence of human action, as occurs with some irrigation systems, and consists of the accumulation of water soluble salts in the soil. It can also occur after a flood from stream or river water, if the ground is flat and low-lying. In this context, we talk about saline soil to refer to said excess soluble salts, or saline-sodium soil, since sodium chloride is the predominant salt in most cases.
It is worth mentioning that this process has very negative consequences for the agriculture-based economy, such as the loss of soil fertility, one of the greatest nightmares of those who live on the land. While there are ways to stop and reverse salinization, these are very costly procedures, such as washes that leach out salts (leaching consists of dissolving soluble components through the use of a liquid solvent).
Another measure to combat salinization caused by waterlogging is the sudden change in the species that are grown, starting to plant some that support salinity.