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Luxembourg, officially known as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in Western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Despite its small size, Luxembourg boasts a rich cultural heritage and is renowned for its picturesque landscapes and historic architecture.



Luxembourg has a temperate maritime climate, characterized by mild winters and warm summers. The country experiences moderate levels of precipitation throughout the year, with rainfall occurring evenly distributed across the seasons. Snowfall is common in the winter months, particularly in higher elevations.


Luxembourg’s diverse landscapes support a variety of wildlife, including deer, wild boar, and foxes. The country’s forests are home to numerous bird species, such as owls, woodpeckers, and finches. In recent years, efforts have been made to preserve and protect Luxembourg’s natural habitats and biodiversity.

Longest Rivers

The Sauer River, also known as the Sûre River, is the longest river in Luxembourg, flowing for approximately 147 kilometers (91 miles) through the country. The Alzette River is another significant waterway, passing through the capital city of Luxembourg and playing a vital role in the country’s history and development.

Highest Mountains

Luxembourg is characterized by rolling hills and plateaus, with no significant mountain ranges. The highest point in the country is Burgplatz, reaching an elevation of 559 meters (1,834 feet) above sea level. Despite its modest elevation, Burgplatz offers panoramic views of the surrounding countryside.



The territory of present-day Luxembourg has been inhabited since ancient times, with evidence of human settlement dating back to the Paleolithic era. The region was later inhabited by Celtic tribes, followed by Roman occupation during the first century BCE. Luxembourg’s strategic location made it a prized territory throughout history, with various powers vying for control of the region.

Medieval Duchy

Luxembourg emerged as a distinct political entity in the 10th century when Count Siegfried I built a fortification on the site of present-day Luxembourg City. The County of Luxembourg expanded its territory through conquest and alliances, eventually evolving into the Duchy of Luxembourg in the 14th century under the rule of the House of Luxembourg.

Spanish and Austrian Rule

Luxembourg came under Spanish and Austrian rule in the 16th and 17th centuries, respectively, as part of the Spanish Netherlands and the Austrian Netherlands. During this period, Luxembourg experienced significant economic and cultural growth, with the development of trade, industry, and the arts.

Napoleonic Wars and Independence

Luxembourg was annexed by France during the Napoleonic Wars in the early 19th century before becoming part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. Following the Belgian Revolution in 1830, Luxembourg gained independence and became a separate sovereign state under the Treaty of London in 1839.

World Wars and European Integration

Luxembourg’s neutrality was violated during both World War I and World War II, with the country suffering significant damage and loss of life. After the war, Luxembourg played a key role in the founding of the European Coal and Steel Community, the precursor to the European Union. Today, Luxembourg is a member of the EU and hosts several European institutions, including the European Court of Justice and the European Investment Bank.


Luxembourg has a population of approximately 634,000 people, making it one of the smallest countries in Europe by population. The majority of the population is of Luxembourgish nationality, with significant minorities of Portuguese, French, and Belgian descent. The official languages are Luxembourgish, French, and German, reflecting the country’s multicultural heritage.

Administrative Divisions

Luxembourg is divided into three districts, each with its own administrative center and local government.

List of Administrative Divisions with Population

  1. Luxembourg District – Population: 422,000
  2. Diekirch District – Population: 209,000
  3. Grevenmacher District – Population: 133,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Luxembourg City
  2. Esch-sur-Alzette
  3. Differdange
  4. Dudelange
  5. Ettelbruck
  6. Diekirch
  7. Wiltz
  8. Rumelange
  9. Echternach
  10. Grevenmacher

Education Systems

Education in Luxembourg is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 4 and 16. The country has a high-quality education system, with a strong emphasis on multilingualism and academic excellence. Luxembourg is home to several prestigious universities and research institutions, including the University of Luxembourg and the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology.


Luxembourg has a well-developed transportation infrastructure, with efficient road networks, railways, and airports connecting the country to neighboring countries and major cities in Europe.


Luxembourg is served by Luxembourg Airport, located near the capital city. Luxembourg Airport is the country’s only international airport, offering flights to destinations across Europe and beyond.


Luxembourg has a comprehensive railway network operated by Luxembourg Railways (CFL), providing passenger and freight services to domestic and international destinations. The total length of railway tracks in Luxembourg is approximately 275 kilometers (171 miles).


Luxembourg has a modern network of highways and roads, including the A1, A3, and A6 motorways. These highways connect Luxembourg to neighboring countries and major cities in Europe, facilitating the transportation of goods and people.


Luxembourg is a landlocked country and does not have any seaports. However, the country has access to nearby ports on the Moselle River and the Rhine River, providing opportunities for river transport and trade.

Country Facts

  • Population: 634,000
  • Capital: Luxembourg City
  • Languages: Luxembourgish, French, German
  • Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic
  • Ethnicity: Luxembourgish, with significant minorities of Portuguese, French, and Belgian descent
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • ISO Country Codes: LU
  • International Calling Code: +352
  • Top-level Domain: .lu