Originating from the Latin word billard, billiards is a term that refers to a game that takes place on a table and that consists of pushing balls with a cue. There are multiple variants of this discipline.
The basis of billiards is the collisions that establish the balls with the bands and with each other. The player must hit a ball with his cue, which usually has a leather covering on its end. Chalk is applied from time to time to this cover of the cue to improve the accuracy of the impact.
In French billiards, also called carom billiards, three balls are arranged on the table (which is lined with a cloth): one red and two white, or one red, one white and one yellow. The objective is to push a ball with the cue so that it hits the other two. When the carom is achieved, the player continues shooting; otherwise, the turn passes to the other participant.
The American billiards or pool, meanwhile, is set in a table with six pockets (holes). The participants have to insert the balls into the holes, respecting the rules of the discipline. In general, American billiards is played with fifteen numbered balls (ranging from 1 to 15), divided into seven striped, seven smooth and a special black ball (the 8 ball). Introducing the 8 ball into a pocket or removing it from the table, or not hitting the 8 ball when only it and the cue ball remain, imply the loss of the game.
Other types of billiards are English billiards and Spanish billiards. Each of these games has its own peculiarities and rules.
English billiards is also known as esnuka, a transliteration of the term snooker. In short, the main objective of the game is to get the highest number of points, and for this it is necessary to put the balls in the holes. Each color was assigned a value, so the strategy should be based on putting the most important ones first; Starting from the red one, which is worth 1 point, each of the following is worth one more: yellow, green, brown, blue, pink and black.
At the beginning of the game, we must place the white ball in the left semicircle that touches the yellow and brown. The first objective of each turn is to get a red ball. If the player fails, then another must try; If he succeeds, the ball must remain in the hole throughout the game, and the player will have to cast a different color. If he can do it, he gets the corresponding points, the ball is placed in its place once more and the player must put a red one to restart the cycle indefinitely until he fails.
Spanish billiards, meanwhile, was created in the 18th century and is also known as Chapulín de carambolas or, an international name, Spanish pool. It is a game of great fame in various parts of the world, both within the continent and in America; some of the countries where it is played regularly are Ireland, Belgium, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Andorra and Canada.
In this variant of billiards, the table consists of two bands, one with three white holes and the other with three red ones. Fifteen numbered balls and a white ball are used, which is worth 10 points (in a match where a tie takes place at 65, then a point is added to this so that the winner can be determined). In normal situations, the winner is the one who gets a minimum of 66 points.