Thermal Management in LED Lighting

A good heat dissipation is essential to guarantee the duration and the proper operation of the LED lamps

After understanding the importance of the driver or power supply for operation and durability, it is vital to understand the importance of the thermal management of LED luminaires.

The first thing to clarify is that led luminaires generate heat, little compared with other types of technologies, but because of the installed chips if they radiate heat. The fundamental difference between technologies incandescent or fluorescent is that heat is projected against the light direction. That heat can affect certain parts of the luminaire and its management is vital to the performance and durability of the luminaires.

The so-called “Joule effect” is to blame for the generation of heat in LED luminaires. LEDs work with direct current (DC) and for work in electrical facilities operated in alternating currents (AC) require the use of a driver. In this process the current passes through the part of back of the chip of the luminaire, the so-called point or union T. Thermal control of this point, it is the key to determine the quality and durability of the product LED, excess heat at that point would drastically reduce the life and affect the quality of the light emitid.

A good heat dissipation avoids the luminaires to suffer:

  • Reduces the durability of the lamp, degrading its match
  • Reduces the ambient temperature range at which it can operate
  • Alteration of colors and less light intensity

Comparison of energy conversion to heat/light among lighting technologies

Light generated heat generated radiation IR generated

Led 70-80% 20-30% 0%

Fluorescent 20% 40% 40%

Incandescent 10% 20% 70%

The unique characteristics of LEDs, make them best suited for installation in cold environments as cold stores or stores of fresh products. They also contribute to reduce air conditioning costs and minimize risks for people like computers. The LEDs always work best at low temperatures. At lower temperature, better performance.

How is dissipation of heat from the lights?

  1. the electrical flow generates heat and this accumulates at the junction of the chip
  2. from the point of union of the chip heat is transferred to the base plate
  3. from the plate it is transmitted to the heat sink

4 sink removes the heat to the environment

Base plate

The level of finish in the welding of plates of LED luminaires, is vital for proper heat dissipation and avoid excessive temperature rise. The direct binding of the chips to the motherboard by soldering them to the circuit board, dissipates heat up to 100 times better.

T-joint

The union between the chip and motherboard is what we call union T. The connections between the conductors and the terminals of the device also influence very significantly in the treatment of the temperature.

Heatsink (heat sink)

Heat sink normally take the form of metallic structure (grooves or flaps) that will help manage the temperature. They tend not to be visible and in light-duty fixtures are generally not necessary. In the very powerful lights as the industrial use they are absolutely necessary for the correct operation at high ambient temperatures.

Gallery

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